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Comparing Environmental Policies in Brazil and the U.S.

  Cross-border transactions from Brazilian e-commerce companies To overcome the issues outlined above, merchants must devote time and effort to ensuring that all cross-border obstacles are addressed. Merchants should ensure that their payment gateways can handle foreign transactions and examine the refund process.  Logistics-wise, merchants can employ a cross-docking strategy by selecting brokers to reduce the bureaucracy and logistics of export procedures, as well as exchange and return operations. Forming commercial agreements with important markets might help facilitate clearance.  At the same time, it will strive to assess the challenges faced by businesses existing in Brazil or expanding into global markets. These problems include suffocating bureaucratic procedures, high taxes and complex tax systems, poor distribution infrastructure, a scarcity of talent, political instability, and an unpredictable economic climate. Supplemented with case studies from Netshoes Group and B2W Digi

From America to Brazil: Corporate Success Stories


Postcolonialism and "Latin America"

Postcolonialism is an approach whose prominence in the social sciences has grown since the early 1980s, despite its origins in the 1950s and 60s. In general, it is a complicated and ambiguous body of knowledge since authors in this tradition draw from a variety of theoretical sources and perspectives. One of its forerunners is Aime Ce'saire (1955), who argued against the colonialist attitude that imposes Western logics on those under Western domination. His work influenced Fanon (1961), who emphasizes colonial aggression as a process that removes the colonized's human features and conditions while imposing an inauthentic identity. Fanon (1961) analyzes Algeria's distinctiveness and advises the use of violence as a means of resistance and the only way to develop an authentic national identity. Among the important figures in the development of postcolonialism are Edward Said and Homi Bhabha. Said (1979) argues how, via various types of cultural representation, the West has produced a false vision of the Orient, as if its population and ways of life were savage. The "Orientalist" ideology served as justification for colonial practices and attitudes. Homi Bhabha (1994) supports "the third space" or "in between" as a means of highlighting hybridism and combating dualist (e.g., West/East) ways of representation, which typically sustain and promote exclusion. According to this viewpoint, identities are not given but rather negotiated and renegotiated among the numerous possibilities of meaning. Thinking about a third space can help you avoid an essentialist approach to meaning creation. Postcolonial theory has affected current debates about globalization and world events such as the Darfur genocide and the Iraq war.

While postcolonialist perspectives are rich and diverse, they all tend to reject epistemology and many Western practices as systems that exclude other realities and forms of knowledge (Cala's and Smircich, 1999; Prasad and Prasad, 2001). A common theme is a critique of the concepts of "progress" and "modernity" as defined by theorists in industrialized countries. From this perspective, one often concentrates on economic considerations and portrays access to and advances in science and technology as justification for certain countries' "development" while others stay underdeveloped. This progress within the limits of Western culture or affluent nations ends with classifying people and cultures of "emerging" nations as "undeveloped" or "primitive," resulting in the exclusion of their knowledge, values, and traditions. According to Wyrick and Beasley (1997), science and technology permit new forms of (neo)colonial authority. Postcolonialism also refers to the study of how Western academics establish analysis and categories that conceal their inherent ethnocentrism (Prasad and Prasad, 2001). In this way, the postcolonial perspective criticizes the ethnocentrism of Western ideology and practices (Mignolo, 2000).

In this line, Central and South American issues have sparked postcolonial analysis.


In fact, early notions of a post-colonial stripe may be found in Brazil as late as the 1950s. For example, Guerreiro Ramos (1958) questioned Brazil's colonial status and advocated for "revolutionary nationalism". He also advocated for foreign Sociological concepts, when imported, had to take into account the Brazilian institutional environment in order to be relevant to local reality. During the 1980s and 1990s, there was an emergence of more sophisticated postcolonial thinking to address regional challenges. The primary subjects of concern in the region were social development, the complexity of "Latin America," inequality, and the imposition of Western "development" ideals on the realities of South and Central America (see Rodr'ıguez, 2001).
In this approach, one could claim that the concept of "Latin America" contributed to the formation and reinforcement of a "tropicalist" and subaltern version of the region (Mignolo, 2008). This concept was created by European invaders, and it homogenizes disparate communities with distinct ethnic backgrounds and traditions (and, originally, different religions) into a united and homogeneous "Latin America". The "Latin America" construct gives rise to the "Latin-American" subject, which represents the phenotypic difference from the European subject (Mignolo, 2008). According to Quijano (2008), such disparities allow for the classification of controllers and controlled, as well as the establishment of hierarchies and social roles within each group. The word has evolved over time to indirectly refer to those who live in the "other" America, those who are not part of "North America." In fact, a trip across Brazil, Bolivia, and Argentina demonstrates that any notion that groups together such complicated and diverse countries and populations is, at best, a simplification.
After providing key postcolonial aspects necessary for denaturalizing established Western conceptions and knowledge, the following section will examine how a specific kind of management has been widely disseminated and legitimized as a US institution (Khurana, 2007).

US management

Management, even in its most basic form, includes activities such as planning, rallying people around a common goal, motivating a group to achieve certain goals, delegating responsibilities, and coordinating activities. These components were essential for constructing pyramids and religious temples, conducting wars, and even ruling nations. As a result, the origins of activities that resemble what we now call management can be traced back to the dawn of humanity. In reality, management, in whatever shape it takes, is an essential component of all organized human endeavor. According to Tsoukas (1994), the assumption that management is a collective process means that it is an institutional requirement.Americanizing.
"Tropicalism" is an essential concept in postcolonial thinking regarding Central and South America. This concept aims to demonstrate how the West has portrayed these regions and their inhabitants. Since "discovery," non-Anglo-Saxon America has been portrayed as an exotic and luxurious subcontinent with amazing fauna and flora and a mild climate, akin to a paradise on Earth, in travel writing, literary works, academic publications, films, and other forms of media. On the other hand, these features could help to explain the region's laziness and backwardness. According to the tropicalist version, this backwardness can also be explained by local people's intrinsic qualities, which are typically regarded as corrupt, lethargic, exotic, inferior, and overemotional. As a result, the (sad) tropics are portrayed as a decadent region of pleasure populated by inferior people (Aparicio and Cha’vez-Silverman, 1997).


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