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Comparing Environmental Policies in Brazil and the U.S.

  Cross-border transactions from Brazilian e-commerce companies To overcome the issues outlined above, merchants must devote time and effort to ensuring that all cross-border obstacles are addressed. Merchants should ensure that their payment gateways can handle foreign transactions and examine the refund process.  Logistics-wise, merchants can employ a cross-docking strategy by selecting brokers to reduce the bureaucracy and logistics of export procedures, as well as exchange and return operations. Forming commercial agreements with important markets might help facilitate clearance.  At the same time, it will strive to assess the challenges faced by businesses existing in Brazil or expanding into global markets. These problems include suffocating bureaucratic procedures, high taxes and complex tax systems, poor distribution infrastructure, a scarcity of talent, political instability, and an unpredictable economic climate. Supplemented with case studies from Netshoes Group and B2W Digi

From America to Brazil: Opening a Business in a New Market


 Americanizing Brazil: A Context

Before discussing the historical movements relevant to the Americanization of Brazil, it is crucial to note that Brazil began as a country under the rule of a European nation. The country was a Portuguese colony from 1500 to 1822. When Americanizing Brazilian Management
According to Hollanda (1973), when the Portuguese arrived, they introduced an exploitative settling paradigm rather than fostering native culture. This methodology implied not negotiation, but rather the ruthless implantation of precepts and allusions imported from Europe. The paradigm and equipment of Brazilian colonization and settlement predated population inflow, with the goal of producing a reality resembling "modern" Europe (Faoro, 1976; Prado, 1965; Holanda, 1973). The social formation of the Brazilian imaginary takes place within these authoritarian, colonial Portuguese intestines, which demand not only a foreign imaginary, but also an absolute gap between the controlled world and the conquering, superior world (Freyre, 1966; Calligaris, 1993). 

The concept of modernizing Brazil through foreign social and economic models has thus existed since the country's inception (Faoro, 1976; Prado, 1965; Holanda, 1973), and the local elite has since borrowed from Western socioeconomic models that seek to "modernize" Brazil. Following independence, England and France assumed the role of the "superior" foreign nation in relation to Brazil (Caldas and Wood, 1997). To some extent, it is plausible to argue that the use of foreign templates and allusions has traditionally contributed to local elites' legitimacy. Historically, these elites have exercised dominance over the rest of society. Walking through Brazilian neighborhoods today, it is clear that those of European heritage have a better standard of living than the local or African population. The bulk of people living in slums and poorer areas are black. They are often excluded from top universities and elite areas, but also make up the majority of the prison population. Pan-Americanism was not widely accepted in US foreign policy until Roosevelt embraced it in 1940, after a long development. In order to prevent an approximation with Germany, the United States increased its diplomatic and economic influence in Brazil and the rest of the continent in the 1930s, but it was not until the 1940s that US influence truly expanded. This was mostly owing to the purposeful Americanization activities organized by the third Roosevelt administration, as well as the resulting, persistent American political and economic support for the continent in the name of "hemispheric solidarity" (Moura, 1990; Accioly, 1945). It is vital to note that on the verge of a World War, the United States portrayed itself as a means of resisting the German and Italian despotism of the moment.
Following this presentation of crucial aspects to provide a picture of US influence in Brazil, the following section will focus on the 1940s, when it appears that Brazil had a definite inflection point, after which the center of influence clearly shifted to the United States.Americanizing Brazilian management.

The United States today fills the role of the "superior foreigner" in regard to Brazil, and we shall analyze the reasons for this in the following sections. 

Authors such as Moura (1990), Accioly (1945), and Ianni (1979) have written extensively about the extent, shape, and evolution of US influence in the southern part of the American continent. They perceive this extension as a twentieth-century political project based on Pan-Americanist ideology. This expansion resulted from a diplomatic push to diversify influences away from English hegemony at the end of the nineteenth century, and it was reinforced by the "Monroe Doctrine," which stated that the United States regarded itself as the repository of international political interests and the representative of the civilized world. The so-called "democratic and egalitarian" tradition explained the expansion through a variety of justifications (political, religious, cultural, and economic), claiming that it was Protestant America's moral duty to civilize late-developing peoples and liberate them from Catholic barbarism. It is now acknowledged that the deliberate political effort of approximation with the Southern half of the Americas began during the Republican Herbert Hoover administration. It was accompanied by the rise of Pan-Americanism, a movement that began in the United States in the 1920s and campaigned for the continent's economic and political unity, with the goal of defending and developing the region. After being elected in 1928, President Hoover traveled around the continent, promoting a "good-neighbor policy" between the United States and its southern neighbors. The goal was to lay the groundwork for a "Latin America"-focused foreign policy, since the region was viewed as a big consumer market with substantial strategic implications. However, Hoover's administration was unable to achieve its
Roosevelt later adopted this purpose (Moura, 1990; Accioly, 1945; Ianni, 1979).

American influence grew significantly between the end of World War I and the start of World War II, when the United States became recognized as an emerging force around the world.

 The penetration of US allusions into Brazil during this period was further fueled by the US's clear signals of economic and industrial development during the Coolidge era. In the 1920s, the US was viewed as a model of efficiency and modernization by the emerging Brazilian industrial elite, especially in São Paulo, due to technological advancements and market development facilitated by Taylorist and Fordist mechanization. As in past periods of Brazilian history, the elites sought a Western model to rely on, and the United States appeared to be the most "developed" one. In July 1931, a group of industrialists founded IDORT (Instituto de Organizaç²a˜o Racional do Trabalho), a professional training institution aimed at promoting the "rational organization model" among Brazilians. This marked the beginning of a systematic effort to emulate and absorb US productive and managerial technology (see Vizeu, 2008). This management modeling and mimesis movement had a significant impact on absorbing and adopting US managerial references in Brazil in the second half of the century, influencing similar organizations and endeavors. From the 1920s onward, the United States as an economic power progressively became a significant cultural reference for many Brazilians, thanks to "US progress" distribution institutions and indicators of development from the many items and technologies that arrived in Brazil from North America. In terms of culture, the 1920s and 1930s marked the spread of various US allusions in Brazil, which would later have a significant impact on Americanist consolidation. During this time, US music, literature, and, most importantly, US movies began to gain popularity in Brazil (Tota, 2000). It is vital to note that US cultural products had a significant influence on the aspirational urban bourgeoisie. Consuming US cultural products was viewed as a method to demonstrate "progressive thinking" (Tota, 2000).


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