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Comparing Environmental Policies in Brazil and the U.S.

  Cross-border transactions from Brazilian e-commerce companies To overcome the issues outlined above, merchants must devote time and effort to ensuring that all cross-border obstacles are addressed. Merchants should ensure that their payment gateways can handle foreign transactions and examine the refund process.  Logistics-wise, merchants can employ a cross-docking strategy by selecting brokers to reduce the bureaucracy and logistics of export procedures, as well as exchange and return operations. Forming commercial agreements with important markets might help facilitate clearance.  At the same time, it will strive to assess the challenges faced by businesses existing in Brazil or expanding into global markets. These problems include suffocating bureaucratic procedures, high taxes and complex tax systems, poor distribution infrastructure, a scarcity of talent, political instability, and an unpredictable economic climate. Supplemented with case studies from Netshoes Group and B2W Digi

Why Brazil is a Top Destination for American Business Expansion


Prior to the establishment of the Sao Paulo School of Management, Brazil had no professional managers. 

The establishment of a new profession under the aegis of US management is a strong indication that this process has a colonial component. The new school brought to Brazil a new manner of teaching students and managing educational institutions. It also contributed to the formation of a new profession based on the US model, protected its interests, and qualified locals to work for US multinational corporations in the country. Another evident colonial feature of this process is the notion that US management equals development, implying that local Brazilian management systems were "primitive" at the time. In fact, US management education was regarded as synonymous with modern management practices, as opposed to traditional Brazilian forms of management, which were thought to involve traditionalism, patriarchalism, and were deeply rooted in the country's rural past (Vizeu, 2008). While European productivity models had a significant impact on the origins of business and trade in Brazil, US management knowledge and tools emerged as a solution for modernizing and supporting the country's industrial development (Vizeu, 2008).

Following that, a network of social actors, such as training and consulting firms, continued the process, while business schools continued to play an important role in the spread of management approaches and models imported from the United States (Serva, 1990). Finally, in recent decades, some professions have played an important role in institutionalizing the porous Brazilian character. Consultants are the most prevalent management example (Serva, 1990). Until the mid-1960s, the majority of managerial technology in Brazil was imported from the United States. This management technology importation process began in the early stages of Brazilian industrialization in the early twentieth century, but it was heavily reinforced by the fast industrialization that occurred between 1930 and late 1950s. One important issue to note is that US management has never encountered opposition from the Brazilian bourgeoisie, who were the primary recipients of US management training. This could imply that knowing US management tactics was a useful tool for the local elite to maintain its power, as members of the elite were ultimately employed by multinational corporations in the country. This process is yet another example of the Brazilian elite using foreign models and references to retain its legitimacy.

This process had effects. There were concerns that management education was just importing a foreign paradigm that had no bearing on the Brazilian reality at the time (Covre, 1981). 

Furthermore, Dole Anderson (one of the US professors who led the Michigan State University mission in charge of establishing FGV-EAESP in Brazil) stated the following in the foreword of a book in which he examines the institutional development of management education in Brazil: Economists were legally responsible for operating groups. The establishment of the school and an undergraduate management course resulted in the introduction of a new profession: the manager, according to Brazilian law. Bachelor's degrees in management were first awarded in Brazil following the creation of this school. This procedure created some conflict between the school and the economists, whose privileged position was questioned (Taylor, 1968; Anderson, 1987).

The above quotation suggests that the transference of US management institutions is linked to ethnocentric visions of local realities (the last phrase is a clear example), and that it also influences local actors to adopt a foreign mindset that undervalues their own achievements and local realities. The remark clearly implies that the logics driving Americanization are inextricably linked to the logic of colonialism (Frenkel and Shenhav, 2003), which has serious effects wherever it occurs. Colonialism is a manufactured idea that gains meaning through specific iterations and reiterations based on materially entrenched political and cultural struggles (Lhoyd, 2000, p. 382), implying that it is always dependent on specificities and is a complicated construct in and of itself. Despite this, colonialism is commonly used to describe a process in which indigenous characteristics are subordinated, displaced, or even exterminated (Lhoyd, 2000), and it is closely linked to the imposition of modern forms and institutional structures (Schwarz, 2000), as well as the construction of derogatory images of the Other. It is critical to note that coloniality of knowledge can be closely linked to coloniality of power (Mignolo 2000).

According to Ibarra-Colado (2006), Americanization of management in Brazil leads to "epistemic coloniality," which involves integrating native elites into the dominant Anglo-Euro-Centric ideology of modernity through scientific knowledge (Florescano, 1994, p. 65, quoted by Ibarra-Colado, 2006, p. 464). 

As such, this is a process that reinforces the notion that US managerial knowledge is superior to Brazil's. For example, multiple research have examined how US knowledge and concepts pervade Brazilian academic management production. Bertero and Keinert (1994), for example, looked at the theoretical perspectives employed by authors who published articles in RAE (the leading Brazilian academic management journal) between 1961 and 1993. They found that Brazilian academic output was restricted to absorbing and duplicating ideas developed elsewhere, most notably in the United States. A prior in-depth investigation of theoretical and methodological trends in a large sample of published organizational research reached a similar conclusion (Machado Da Silva et al., 1990).Vergara and Carvalho (1995) found that the majority of references for academic management studies were international, primarily from the United States, with relatively few references to Brazilian writers. In a more recent study, Vergara and Pinto (2001) found that American references account for 61.05 percent of all references in Brazilian organizational studies. Analyzing management articles from the 1990s, Rodrigues and Carrieri (2001) discovered that Anglo-Saxon authors had a significant influence on Brazilian organizational studies. Frequently, the production that was directly or indirectly imported was not only isomorphic, but also publicized with significant delay and was chosen based on questionable criteria (Bertero et al. 1999).

The reasons for this are predictable: disqualification of indigenous work in various categories, as well as foreign influence on author training. Both feed a seemingly never-ending vicious loop, highlighting


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